A capacitor stores electric charge. Polarised capacitors must be connected the correct way round. They usually have larger values, 1µF and greater. See above for uses.
Photodiode A light-sensitive diode.
Transistor PNP A transistor amplifies current and can be used with other components to make an amplifier or switching circuit. This symbol is for a bipolar junction transistor (BJT), the type you are most likely to use at first.
A NOT gate can only have one input. The o on the output means not. The output of a NOT gate is the inverse (opposite) of its input, so the output is true when the input is false. A NOT gate is also called an inverter.