The diagram shows a simple circuit of a battery, wires, a switch and a lamp. The switch works by breaking the circuit.
A NOR gate can have two or more inputs. The o on the output means not showing that it is a Not OR gate. The output of a NOR gate is true when none of its inputs are true.
This type of variable capacitor is designed to be set when a circuit is made and then left without further adjustment.
Transistor PNP A transistor amplifies current and can be used with other components to make an amplifier or switching circuit. This symbol is for a bipolar junction transistor (BJT), the type you are most likely to use at first.