Transistor PNP A transistor amplifies current and can be used with other components to make an amplifier or switching circuit. This symbol is for a bipolar junction transistor (BJT), the type you are most likely to use at first.
Preset variable resistor A preset is operated with a small screwdriver or similar tool. It is designed to be set when the circuit is made and then left without further adjustment. Presets are cheaper than standard variable resistors so they are sometimes used in projects to reduce the cost.
A potentiometer has 3 contacts and is usually used to control voltage. It can be used like this as a transducer converting position (angle of the control spindle) to an electrical signal.
Light Emitting Diode A transducer which converts electrical energy to light. Usually abbreviated to LED.