Oscilloscope An oscilloscope is used to display the shape of electrical signals - showing how they vary with time. It can be used to measure voltage and time periods.
Amplifier (general symbol) An amplifier circuit with one input. Really this is a block diagram symbol because it represents a circuit rather than just one component.
Transistor NPN A transistor amplifies current and can be used with other components to make an amplifier or switching circuit. This symbol is for a bipolar junction transistor (BJT), the type you are most likely to use at first.
Relay An electrically operated switch, for example a 9V battery circuit connected to the coil can switch an AC mains circuit. The rectangle represents the coil. NO = Normally Open, COM = Common, NC = Normally Closed.