A NOT gate can only have one input. The o on the output means not. The output of a NOT gate is the inverse (opposite) of its input, so the output is true when the input is false. A NOT gate is also called an inverter.
A rheostat has 2 contacts and is usually used to control current. Uses include controlling lamp brightness or motor speed and changing the rate of flow of charge into a capacitor in a timing circuit.
Thermistor A transducer which converts temperature (heat) to resistance (an electrical property).
Oscilloscope An oscilloscope is used to display the shape of electrical signals - showing how they vary with time. It can be used to measure voltage and time periods.