Transistor NPN A transistor amplifies current and can be used with other components to make an amplifier or switching circuit. This symbol is for a bipolar junction transistor (BJT), the type you are most likely to use at first.
Electricity can flow only if there is a complete circuit from the battery through wires to components and back to the battery again.
Zener diode A zener diode can be used to maintain a fixed voltage.
A NOT gate can only have one input. The o on the output means not. The output of a NOT gate is the inverse (opposite) of its input, so the output is true when the input is false. A NOT gate is also called an inverter.