Transistor PNP A transistor amplifies current and can be used with other components to make an amplifier or switching circuit. This symbol is for a bipolar junction transistor (BJT), the type you are most likely to use at first.
A capacitor stores electric charge. Polarised capacitors must be connected the correct way round. They usually have larger values, 1µF and greater. See above for uses.
This type of variable capacitor is designed to be set when a circuit is made and then left without further adjustment.
Earphone A transducer which converts electrical energy to sound.