Oscilloscope An oscilloscope is used to display the shape of electrical signals - showing how they vary with time. It can be used to measure voltage and time periods.
Thermistor A transducer which converts temperature (heat) to resistance (an electrical property).
Ohmmeter Measures resistance. Most multimeters have an ohmmeter setting.
A capacitor stores electric charge. It can be used with a resistor in a timing circuit, for smoothing a supply (it provides a reservoir of charge) and can be used as a filter (blocking DC signals but passing AC signals). Unpolarised capacitors usually have small values, less than 1µF.