Galvanometer A very sensitive meter used to measure tiny currents, usually 1mA or less.
Ohmmeter Measures resistance. Most multimeters have an ohmmeter setting.
Transistor PNP A transistor amplifies current and can be used with other components to make an amplifier or switching circuit. This symbol is for a bipolar junction transistor (BJT), the type you are most likely to use at first.
A rheostat has 2 contacts and is usually used to control current. Uses include controlling lamp brightness or motor speed and changing the rate of flow of charge into a capacitor in a timing circuit.