Transistor PNP A transistor amplifies current and can be used with other components to make an amplifier or switching circuit. This symbol is for a bipolar junction transistor (BJT), the type you are most likely to use at first.
Thermistor A transducer which converts temperature (heat) to resistance (an electrical property).
An EX-OR gate can only have two inputs. The output of an EX-OR gate is true when its inputs are different (one true, one false).
Logic gates process signals which represent true (1, high, +Vs, on) or false (0, low, 0V, off). For more information please see the page on logic gates. There are two sets of symbols: traditional and IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission).