Resistor A resistor restricts the flow of charge. Uses include limiting the current passing through an LED, and slowly charging a capacitor in a timing circuit. Some publications use the old resistor symbol
Transistor PNP A transistor amplifies current and can be used with other components to make an amplifier or switching circuit. This symbol is for a bipolar junction transistor (BJT), the type you are most likely to use at first.
Oscilloscope An oscilloscope is used to display the shape of electrical signals - showing how they vary with time. It can be used to measure voltage and time periods.
A capacitor stores electric charge. Polarised capacitors must be connected the correct way round. They usually have larger values, 1µF and greater. See above for uses.